Transgender Disclosure or Non-Disclosure to Paramedics Research Study

*Disclaimer: All research participation opportunities posted on this site are conducted by outside entities and individuals and not by GLMA. As such, GLMA does not bear any responsibility for the research opportunities presented on this platform, and the act of posting such opportunities does not constitute an endorsement by the organization.*

You are invited to participate in a research study on the experiences of transgender patients in paramedic care, and their decisions to disclose/not disclose their gender identity to paramedics.

The study is being conducted by Miss Rachel Wiltshire from the School of Nursing, Paramedicine and Healthcare Sciences at Charles Sturt University. Charles Sturt University is an Australian University, TEQSA Provider Identification: PRV12018. Charles Sturt University CRICOS Provider: 00005F

Miss Rachel Wiltshire
3rd year Bachelor of Paramedicine (Honours) student

Project Supervisors: 
Associate Professor Pauletta Irwin Dr Brian Sengstock Mrs Janet Curtis
Associate Professor of Nursing Senior Lecturer, Healthcare Sciences Lecturer in Paramedicine
School of Nursing, Paramedicine and Healthcare Sciences School of Nursing, Paramedicine and Healthcare Sciences School of Nursing, Paramedicine and Healthcare Sciences
Charles Sturt University Charles Sturt University Charles Sturt University
Email: Email: Email:

Before you decide whether or not you wish to participate in this study, it is important for you to understand why the research is being done and what it will involve. Please take the time to read the following information carefully and discuss it with others if you wish.
What is the purpose of this study?
Research conducted among transgender patients suggests that non-disclosure of gender identity has been linked to overall worse health outcomes. Pre-hospital care provides a unique environment in which paramedics are able to gain a glimpse into the everyday lives of their patients, providing them with an opportunity to gain context about their patient’s problems. With regard to these facts, this study aims to investigate the reasons that transgender patients choose to disclose or not disclose their gender identity when being treated by paramedics. The findings of this study have the potential benefit of supporting changes in paramedic curriculum to improve inclusiveness, which will in turn improve the experiences of transgender patients being treated by paramedics.

Why have I been invited to participate in this study?
We are seeking transgender individuals aged 18 and over whom have had any experiences being treated by paramedics to participate in this research. Please note the term transgender is being used in this case as an umbrella term for individuals who do not identify as cisgender. You were selected as a member of an LGBTIQ+ organisation who have agreed to support the recruitment of participants for this study. If you identify as cisgender, unfortunately you are not eligible to participate in this study.

What does this study involve?
If you agree to participate, you are asked to participate in this 15 minute survey about your experience as a transgender person with paramedic care. The survey is being administered by the Manager, Spatial Analysis Network (SPAN), on behalf of the researcher. The SPAN Manager is a member of staff in the Office of Research Services and Graduate Studies at Charles Sturt University, and is independent of the research team. 

If you provide your contact details to participate in the semi-structured interview at the end of the survey, the administrator will extract this information from the completed survey responses and provide your contact details as a separate report. This ensures that your responses cannot be linked to yourself and ensures the anonymity of your responses.

The survey asks for some demographic data about yourself and then asks a series of questions which explore your experience with paramedics and your perceptions of discrimination in this environment. The survey also asks about any experiences you may have had being outed when in paramedic care. There are also some questions on the presence of equality and inclusivity in this environment. While there are some demographic questions that require a response, you may choose not to respond to any questions that you do not feel comfortable responding to.

You will also be asked if you would be willing to participate in an online semi-structured interview, with a required time commitment of 45 minutes to 1 hour. You will be asked to indicate if you may be contacted for participation in the semi-structured interview at the end of the survey. In completing the survey, you are not obligated to participate in the semi-structured interview. If you would prefer not to complete the survey but would like to participate in a semi-structured interview, please contact the researcher directly by email to express your interest in this stage of the research project.
Are there risks and benefits to me in taking part in this study?
There will be no direct benefit to you in participating in this study, however there may be some benefit to those individuals later treated by paramedics who have been through the curriculum after the implementation of these findings. It is possible that you may feel uncomfortable answering questions or discussion of transgender issues due to the sensitive and personal nature of the questions being asked.

The following support services are available if you feel that the questions in the survey, or the interview, have led to emotional discomfort or distress.

Counselling services:
  • QLife (3pm – 12am): 1800 184 527 or
  • Twenty10: 02 8594 9555 or
  •  Lifeline: 13 11 14
  •  BeyondBlue: 1300 224 636 or
  •  MensLine Australia: 1300 789 987 or
By volunteering to participate in a semi-structured interview you will be identifying yourself as a member of the transgender community.

How is this study being paid for?
No internal or external funding has been provided for the conduct of this research.

Will taking part in this study (or travelling to) cost me anything, and will I be paid?
There are no costs involved in participating in this study and participants will not be paid for participation in this study.

What if I don't want to take part in this study?
Participation in this research is entirely your choice. Whether or not you decide to participate, is your decision and will not disadvantage you. Only those who give their informed consent will be included in the project. If you choose not to participate in this study, there is no penalty and you will nor experience discriminatory treatment for non-participation.
What if I participate and want to withdraw later?
It is not possible to withdraw your data from the survey after responding, as your responses are anonymous. 

If you participate in an interview and later wish to withdraw, data associated with your interview will be destroyed including any audio, video or transcript of the data. It will not, however, be possible to identify any data related to your participation once this data has been analysed as the data will be consolidated with other participant’s data and will not be able to be identified as being data obtained from an individual participant.

If you wish to withdraw prior to the semi-structured interview data being de-identified, your withdrawal will not result in any penalty or discriminatory treatment.

How will my confidentiality be protected?
The survey questionnaire is being administered by the Manager, SPAN, Office of Research Services and Graduate Studies, Charles Sturt University, to ensure confidentiality and anonymity. The questionnaire is anonymous and it will not be possible to identify you from your responses. The survey administrator will provide the researchers with the data following the completion of the survey period.

In order to further protect the anonymity of the survey responses, if you indicate you would like to participate in a semi-structured interview, this information will be separated from the survey responses by the survey administrator and provided to the researchers as a separate report.

Any information which might identify you will be stored securely and only accessed by the researchers unless you consent otherwise, except as required by law.

Your completed consent form for the semi-structured interview will be stored in a locked filing cabinet, with only members of the research team able to access the repository. You will have the option of providing verbal consent to participate in the semi-structured interview if you prefer. All semi-structured interviews will be transcribed verbatim and the transcripts will be allocated an alphanumeric code to ensure that these are de-identified. Only the researchers will know which code relates to which participant and this information will not be stored with the de-identified transcripts.

Data will be retained for at least five (5) years, with a copy of the data used for analysis to be held at Charles Sturt University. Identifiers for the data will be permanently deleted, five (5) years after the completion of the project.

What will happen to the information that I give you?  
The findings from this project will be published in peer-reviewed journals, conference posters and oral presentations at conferences. De-identified quotes from the semi-structured interviews may be used in conference presentations, poster presentations, and journal papers. The findings from this project may also assist in the development of paramedic curriculum to reflect improved diversity and inclusion at Charles Sturt University.
What should I do if I want to discuss this study further before deciding?
If you would like further information, please contact Rachel Wiltshire on 0406 375 490.
Who should I contact if I have concerns about the conduct of this study?
Charles Sturt University’s Human Research Ethics Committee has approved this project [Protocol number: H23537]. If you have any complaints or reservations about the ethical conduct of this project, you may contact the Committee through the Research Integrity Unit via the following contact details:
     The Presiding Officer
     Human Research Ethics Committee
     Research Integrity Unit
     Locked Bag 588
     Wagga Wagga
     Phone: (02) 6933 4213

Any issues you raise will be treated in confidence and investigated thoroughly, and you will be informed of the outcome.